Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason women live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase as time passes? The evidence is limited and we only have some answers. We know that behavioral, زيوت تطويل الشعر biological and environmental factors contribute to the fact that women have longer lives than men, however, we aren’t sure how much the influence to each of these variables is.
We have learned that women live longer than men, regardless of their weight. But, this is not because of certain biological factors have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. There are other issues that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is above the diagonal parity line – this means that in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live for longer than a new boy.1
This chart is interesting in that it shows that while the female advantage exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have a longer life span than men, while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.
In rich countries the women’s advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let’s take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The next chart plots male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US over the period 1790-2014. Two aspects stand out.
First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be quite small, but it grew substantially during the last century.
You can verify that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.