Why do women live longer than men?

Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. Why do women live more than men do today, and why does this benefit increase in the past? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to draw an informed conclusion. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral, and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than males, it isn’t clear what percentage each factor plays in.

We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. But, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; which means that in every country the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage in all countries, the differences across countries can be substantial. In Russia women have a longer life span than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.



In the richer countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller

Let’s now look at how the gender advantage in terms of longevity has changed over time. The following chart shows the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US from 1790 to 2014. Two areas stand 비회원 구매 out.

There is an upward trend. and women in the US live much, much longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

There is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.

You can verify that the points you’ve listed are applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.

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